We use the notion of personality to describe a person, to evaluate its work and behavior. Generally, personality is considered to be as the total amount of all things that make up a person like actions, thoughts, and feelings. When we talk about the personality structure and the number of components that represent it, temperament has a great role.
Temperament has to do with the peculiar way how a person reacts toward impulses and different situations. Therefore, we deal with the emotional reaction of a person, which is expressed with the dynamics of its actions.
The first personality classification is done based on the human’s temperament. Hippocrates suggests that people differ in temperament due to the body fluids we have. Afterward, its work was continued by Galen, creating the temperament typology categorized into four personalities according to temperament: Sanguine, Choleric, Melancholic, and Phlegmatic. Even though this theory does not have much scientific support, this categorization is very popular, and each person belongs to one of these four categories. Of course, the levels in a category vary, for example, some people can be more melancholic than the others.
- Sanguine temperament
People with this temperament are enthusiastic, optimistic, and happy. Also, they are very active, skilled, and social, but they often lack perseverance and patience. Generally speaking, people with this type of temperament do not tolerate boredom and are always in search of entertainments, which usually do not last long, therefore they often search for other entertainment. These people are very creative. Students usually do very good at school, but they sometimes hurry too much and make mistakes.
Since they are fantastic entertainers, they tend to be successful if they choose to follow a career in show business. Their skills are a match for occupations that relate with marketing, travel, fashion design, cooking, and sport. In a figurative way, this type is identified with the air.
- Choleric temperament
This temperament manifests with intensive feelings. These people get mad often and consequently, they get in conflicts with other people. Their reactions are strong and vigor, but they also are very passionate and optimistic about life. Choleric students are ambitious and sharp-minded. They work with passion and intensity, they are social and great organizers of the school work, they can make some rivals because they always want to be the best. Choleric people are oriented in goals and continue to work being straightforward without losing time for small talk.
The ideal occupations for these types of people are related to the technology industry such as statistics, engineering, and business. In a figurative way, this temperament type identifies with the fire.
- Melancholic temperament
With great patience and care for everything, these people are a little less optimistic, even often pessimism is dominated by them. They get affected very quickly and have great changes in their mood. However, these are quiet people, careful, and mature. They prefer tradition. Melancholic people can be creative in art activities, like writing poetry and painting. Sometimes, they are so independent and involved so much in their personal things that they forget to think about others.
Being that they’re very accurate, the suitable career for these types would be in administration, accounting, social work, art etc. In a figurative way, this temperament type identifies with the Earth.
- Phlegmatic temperament
These people have mainly passive characteristics, rare and slow reactions, and weak emotions. They are optimistic, self-sufficient, quiet, observant, reasonable, and very consistent. They avoid conflicts and try to create harmony between people. Students are very careful during classes, but their answers and movements are slow and therefore the impression is that they do not know the answer.
Careers that are more suitable for this type are health care, teaching, social services etc. In a figurative way, this type of temperament identifies with the water.
Kagan, Jerome (1998). Galen's Prophecy: Temperament in Human Nature. New York: Basic Books. Stelmack, R. M., & Stalikas, A. (1991). Galen and the humour theory of temperament. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(3), 255-263. https://www.cleverism.com/temperament-type-can-influence-career/http://psychologia.co/four-temperaments/http://www.theaiam.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Hippocrates-4-Temperaments-Digital-Copy.pdf