Harvard citation style
There are a lot of different styles for citing and reference pages. If your professor or the department you are studying hasn’t set a specific citation style for research papers, you should use the Harvard citation style because it’s easier to learn and use. The Harvard citation style uses the method “author-date”. There are some things to know about the Harvard citation style that we’ll be explained thoroughly below:
A reference page with the Harvard Citation Style should:
- Be on another page at the end of the research paper
- Be alphabetically ordered based on the author. If there is no author to it, it should be alphabetically ordered based on the title of the source. If there are different sources from the same author, it should be ordered based on the date.
- Be double-spaced
- Include all the in-text citations written in the research paper.
You will have to include in your citations the following information:
- The author or the editor of the cited source (his/her last name)
- The publication date of the source
Two or more than two authors
If the work has two or more authors, mention all their last names in your citations.
Example: Studies shows that the number of duplicated documents is rising (Arrami & Garner, 2008)
If the work has four or more than that, use the shortcut “et.al” after the last name of the first author.
Example: (Gashi, et.al, 2017)
The “et.al” shortcut can also be used to cite the work of three authors.
Secondary referencing are those references when the author is referring to another author. Thus, you will have to cite the author of the primary work following with the author of the secondary work.
Example: According to Gashi and Krasniqi (2013) as cited by Dervishi et.al (2018) ….;
Citing a direct quotation
If a direct quote is used, you must use quotation and the page number
Example: Simons, et.al (2001) state that the principle of effective stress is ‘imperfectly known and understood by many practicing engineers’ (p.4)
Citing from works with no obvious author
If you need to cite a piece of work which does not have an obvious author, you should use what is called a ‘corporate’ author. For example, many online publications will not have individually named authors, and in many cases, the author will be an organization or company.
Example: The number of dementia sufferers in the UK has been recently estimated at 570,000 (Department of Health, 2008).
If you are unable to find either a named or corporate author, you should use ‘Anon’ as the author name. Be careful, if you cannot find an author for online work, it is not a good idea to use this work as part of your research.
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For all types of references the key bits of information you need to start with are:
- Author or editor
- Date of publication/broadcast/recording
- Title of the item
Depending on the type of material you want to reference you will also need other bits of information, such as name of the publisher, place of publication, page numbers, URL, date of access (for online material), etc. Below you will find you find referencing examples for books, articles, etc.
- Citing a book
Author’s last name, name initials. (Year of publication). Title. Edition. Place of publication. Publisher.
- Citing an electronic book or PDF
Author’s last name, name initials. (Year of publication). Title. Edition [format]. Place: Publisher (online). Available at: URL or DOI (accessed at: day, month, year).
- Citing a newspaper’s article
Author’s name (Year of publication). ‘Title of the article’ Newspaper’s title (edition), day, month, page number.
- Citing a newspaper’s article (online)
Author’s last name, name initials. (Year of publication). ‘Title of the article’ Newspaper’s title (edition), day, month [online] Available at URL or DOI (accessed at: day, month, year)
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